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Brunei Darussalam - P4H Network
Current Health Expenditure (CHE) as % Gross Domestic Product (GDP)2.2%CHE/GDP
Out-of-pocket (OOPS) spending as % of Current Health Expenditure (CHE)6.7%OOP/CHE
Domestic General Government Health Expenditure (GGHE-D) as % General Government Expenditure (GGE)7.1%GGHE-D/GGE
Gross Domestic Product (GDP), in constant (2020) US$ per capita14BGDP (USD)
Population in thousands (K), millions (M) or billions (B)445.4KPopulation
Brunei Darussalam is a high-income country in South-East Asia with a population of about 445,000 people  in 2021[1]. The country has enjoyed universal health coverage with full government subsidies since 1958 [2]. In 2021, Brunei Darussalam’s current health expenditure (CHE) made up 2% of GDP, while the domestic general government health expenditure accounted for 93% of CHE in 2021. Out-of-pocket expenditure in 2021 was 5.7% of CHE[3].

Free health care with full government subsidies

Brunei Darussalam has developed a single payer system that is financed and administered by the government. The main sources of government revenue are oil and gas. The Ministry of Health is responsible for both health service purchasing and providing services[4]. Universal health coverage in Brunei Darussalam means that all citizens enjoy free health care with a comprehensive benefit package provided through a public network of health facilities, including hospitals, health centres, and primary care facilities. In addition, travelling health clinics and flying medical services provide health care to those living in rural or remote areas to ensure access to needed health care services[5].

Sugar-sweetened beverage tax for health and fiscal benefits

Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are the leading causes of death, including  premature death, in Brunei Darussalam. The country’s sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) tax is one fiscal measure and policy response to NCDs resulting from the Brunei Darussalam Multisectoral Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of NCDs for 2013-2018. There is a plan to expand the SSB tax to other foods[6].


[1] “World Bank Open Data.” World Bank Open Data, Accessed 9 Jan. 2024.

[2] Tant (2014). Equity in access to healthcare in Brunei Darussalam: Results from the Brunei Darussalam Health System Survey (HSS). Master’s Thesis. Duke University

[3] WHO database Indicators

[4] ILO (2021). Extending social health protection: Accelerating progress towards Universal Health Coverage in Asia and the Pacific. Thailand: ILO.

[5] WHO Western Pacific (2014). Health financing country profiles in the Western Pacific Region 1995-2011. WHO: Geneva. Available from:

[6] Ministry of Health (2021). Brunei Darussalam National Multisectoral Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases 2021-2025.