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Kyrgyzstan - P4H Network
Current Health Expenditure (CHE) as % Gross Domestic Product (GDP)5.4%CHE/GDP
Out-of-pocket (OOPS) spending as % of Current Health Expenditure (CHE)40.7%OOP/CHE
Domestic General Government Health Expenditure (GGHE-D) as % General Government Expenditure (GGE)8.6%GGHE-D/GGE
Gross Domestic Product (GDP), in constant (2020) US$ per capita9BGDP (USD)
Population in thousands (K), millions (M) or billions (B)6.5MPopulation
Incidence of Catastrophic Health Spending at 10% Threshold (SDG 3.8.2) Total4.9%Catastrophic Health Spending
Kyrgyzstan implemented three major reforms following independence: Manas, 1996-2005; Manas Taalimi, 2006-2010; and Den Sooluk, 2012-2018[1]. As a result of these reforms, the government introduced mandatory health insurance and a single-payer system with consolidated financing for health services and medicines. The Mandatory Health Insurance Fund managed the system, which is among the first in the Commonwealth of Independent States[2]. The fund was established in 1996; compulsory medical insurance was launched on January 1, 1997; and a state guarantee program of benefits was introduced in 2001.
Major efforts were made to increase public spending on health and improve the efficiency of resource allocation with emphasis on primary healthcare and health outcomes by providing needs-based core health services without financial and other barriers to access[1]. From 2000 through 2019, the universal health service coverage index in Kyrgyzstan improved from 52 to 70[4]. Over the same period, 2000-2019, the [EY1] [AA2] positive effects of mandatory health insurance manifested in the reduction of the share of out-of-pocket payments from 51.6% to 38.6% of current health expenditure[5].

Social health protection today: committed to continuous improvements

The social health protection system in Kyrgyzstan includes two major schemes: 1) State Guaranteed Benefits Package (SGBP) and 2) Additional Mandatory Health Insurance (MHI) Package. Both are financed through The Mandatory Health Insurance Fund[1]. The SGBP provides all citizens with free access to a basic package of primary and outpatient specialist services, and specialist inpatient services with co-payments. The MHI package is accessible to those who contribute to the MHI and provides outpatient medicines at reduced prices, as well as reduced SGBP copayments for specialist inpatient care[2]. The government contributes on behalf of children under five years of age, pensioners, students, soldiers and veterans. About 69% of the total population is insured. The system fully subsidizes a defined group of high-cost health care services and reduces or exempts certain patients from copayments for inpatient care[3]

Though not all objectives of the three reforms have been achieved, the effective coverage of the social health protection and diversification of health financing sources have increased. An additional preferential drug provision programme was developed at the outpatient level. The COVID-19 pandemic created incentives and opportunities for further strengthening of the health system. The government of Kyrgyzstan has committed to a 12-year national health strategy “Healthy person—prosperous country” [2]


[1] Social Protection System Review of Kyrgyzstan. OECD, 2018. doi: 10.1787/9789264302273-en

[2] P4H Network (2022). “Country Briefs: Social Health Protection and Health Financing Reforms”. Briefing Note for Kyrgyzstan prepared by the International Labour Organization. Accessed on 21 February 2023

[3] Health Financing in Kyrgyzstan: Obstacles and Opportunities in the Response to COVID-19. Copenhagen: World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe, 2021. Accessed 11 February 2022

[4]Kyrgyzstan adopts new health strategy for 2019–2030” Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office for Europe, 2019. Accessed on 11 February 2022

[5] Global Health Expenditure Database. Geneva: World Health Organization Available. Accessed on 21 February 2023 at