The aim of this study was to analyze the incidence of catastrophic health expenditures and to measure the rate of impoverishment from health care payments under the social health insurance scheme in Mongolia. Data from the 2012 Household Socio-Economic Survey was used. Catastrophic health expenditures are defined an excess of out-of-pocket payments for health care at the various thresholds for household total expenditure (capacity to pay). About 5.5 % of total households suffered from catastrophic health expenditures, when the threshold is 10 % of the total household expenditure. At the threshold of 40 % of capacity to pay, 1.1 % of the total household incurred catastrophic health expenditures. About 20,000 people were forced into poverty due to paying for health care.